2010. For dryland winter wheat in western Nebraska, row spacings of 10 to 14 inches are recommended. your experience, perform analytics and deliver personalized advertising on our sites, Regents of the University of Minnesota. For irrigation, and especially with late seeding dates, row spacing of 6 to 8 inches is preferred. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Seed size was smaller in 2020 than in the good conditions for seed fill in 2019. LCS Iron; LCS Luna; Buck Pronto; Soft White Spring Wheat Seed. Factors Affecting Wheat Seed Germination As producers begin to make preparations for fall seeding of winter wheat, one of the decisions to be made is how much seed to plant per acre. wheat variety TD-1 could be sown at optimum seed rate of 125-150 kg ha-1 for better growth, yield, nutrient uptake and minimum lodging tendency. The key is to get an optimum plant population with uniform distribution for efficient use of available resources. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Commodity beef type waygu ok can go on this forum... Trudeau, still importing Covid into Canada, Yield Data The optimum stand is less than hard red spring wheat (HRSW) because the crop will have more opportunity to tiller in the early spring. The sowing rate depends on climatic and soil conditions. Establishment decreases from over 70% when sown by start of October by approximately 5% per fortnight to less than 50% in December. Table 3 provides the pounds of seed needed per acre for 6- to 14-inch row spacings and seed sizes of 12,000 to 18,000 seeds per pound, based on 18 seeds per foot of row. Hard White Winter Wheat Seed. Cereals Find out more. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that can vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (300,000 to almost 4,000,000 seeds per acre = 13.3) if the lower rate is with a large seed and the higher rate is with a small seed. Germination and mortality are based on seed tests. For the period between harvest and planting, growers often have only one to two months to make a range of decisions. After seed germinability has been determined, the seeding rate can be determined. Hassan and A. Ali. We use these technologies for AGCO Crop Tour Harvest Report No. Alternatively, call us on 01472 371471. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (320,000 to almost 3,000,000 seeds per acre). Please fill out the form below and a member of our team will be in touch. LCS Genie; LCS Odyssey; LCS Opera; Find a Seed Dealer; About LCS. While the Hessian fly no longer poses a significant threat to wheat in Michigan, the fly-free-date is still a us… With seeding rate determined, how can we be sure the seeder plants the desired amount? Seed Rate Calculator Seed Rate Calculator. The optimum stand of winter wheat is 900,000 to 1,000,000 plants per … a variety of reasons, including to recognize new and past website users, to customize TGW. University of Minnesota Extension discovers science-based solutions, delivers practical education, and engages Minnesotans to build a better future. Large, dense seeds are considered to be of better quality than low test weight seeds. If you lose large areas, consider destroying the winter wheat and planting spring wheat in those areas. Covering the … Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. You may not be able to determine the degree of winter kill until the end of April. RGT Skyfall Group 1 milling wheat RGT Skyfall remains the UK’s most widely grown winter wheat. A few varieties grown in Nebraska have small seed with a lower TKW, but their seed is still suitable for planting. However, don’t be too quick to destroy winter wheat stands in the spring. Siddiqui, S.W. Some years, seed size can vary by 100% or more. They may want to set their drill to deliver a specific quantity in terms of seeds per acre as they most likely do for the other crops on their farm. When planting winter wheat, a relatively deeper seed placement is required, in which the tillering node is laid deeper. First, use the operator's manual to set the seeder. Top 8 winter wheat establishment recommendations: 1. Under irrigated, timely sown conditions a seed rate of about 100 kg/ha at 38 g/1000 seeds is required. Pulses Find out more. The relationship between grain yield (Y) and seed rate was best described by a modified inverse polynomial: Y = u SR (1‐SR/566)/ (SR + u /104) where u represents the upper limit of yield when seed rate is not limiting. Floyd E. Bolton, crop scientist at Oregon State University, says 18 seeds per foot of row seems to be the point of diminishing yield increases, no matter the row spacing from 6 to 18 inches. seed shallow. More dense sowing is used in the northern humid regions. Not a lucky number. Seed winter wheat to achieve a plant stand of 25 plants per square foot in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones. Marketing Permissions Limagrain UK will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you occasionally and to provide valuable tecnical updates, news and events information. On average, there are 22 seeds per head and 5 heads per plant, or 110 seeds per plant. To facilitate rapid emergence, seed winter wheat at a 1- to 1.5-inch soil depth. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Roots are generally less winter-hardy than crowns and regrowth may be very slow, even if roots and shoots appear dead. How many winter wheat seeds should be planted per acre? In fact, beginning in late September until late October, potential wheat yields tend to slip at least one bushel for every day planting is delayed. Get Started; Field Size; Crop; Target Population; Thousand Grain Weight; Germination Percentage; Estimated Establishment; Your Results; Get started . Floyd E. Bolton at Oregon State University suggests 18 seeds per foot of row seems to be the point … Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (320,000 to almost 3,000,000 seeds per acre). Higher yield potential requires higher seeding rates. Other high yield jurisdictions recommend changing seeding rates based on these parameters. the seed rates commonly used at the time. If smaller patches have stands of eight plants per square foot, leave the whole stand (Photo 1). When using pounds per acre, seed size is critical. Maize Find out more. Find … A review of seedling rates vs. yield potential is helpful. Actually, a high thousand kernel weight (TKW) is a better measurement of seed quality. A 30 gram (1.05 ounce) TKW, which translates to 15,200 seeds per pound, is an appropriate minimum TKW for a seedlot. If producers use test weight as a seed quality measurement, they should use a seed test weight above 57 lb per bushel. Kg/Ha 0. More often than not, winter kill is not uniformly distributed across the field, but occurs in patches. Wheat Variety 25R39 25R61 25R74 25R77 ; Nitrogen Rate 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 lbs N/acre; Treatments were arranged in a two way factorial design with N rate as the main plot and variety as the sub plot with three replications. Seed rate must be increased to 125 kg / ha for late sown and rainfed conditions. The higher rates are used for irrigated wheat, which often is seeded in narrower rows and later in the season, as it often follows another crop rather than fallow. Extension is expanding its online education and resources to adapt to COVID-19 restrictions. Plant Rate Calculator. 5. Those who may still be planting by pounds or bushels per acre may want to consider a different approach. LCS Yeti; Hard White Spring Wheat Seed. Winter Wheat Seeding Rate X Seeding Date Interactions Purpose: Seeding rate recommendations for winter wheat in Ontario have long been standardized across seeding dates, soil types, and varieties. Seed cleaning and sizing is essential to remove straw, chaff, dirt, stones, weed seeds, broken diseased, and small shriveled kernels. However, using seeding rates that are too low can lead to excessive tillering. Find out more. This website uses tracking tools, including cookies. For example, see NebGuide G2044. © average shoot survival = 63% range: 50-76% The lower rates are most common in drier areas. The optimum stand of winter wheat is 900,000 to 1,000,000 plants per acre or 21 to 23 plants per square feet. Reynolds commits to broadband funding. Taking a germination test is essential to determine the seed viability. Variety selection: please see the 2012 WI Winter Wheat Performance Test 2. There are several options. In the Black soil zone or on irrigated fields, seed to achieve 30 to 35 plants per square foot. The current research is evaluating seeding rates on both 7.5- and 10-inch row spacings using seeding rates of 14, 16, 18 and 20 seeds per foot of row. Calculate the seeding rate using the following equation: Seeding rate (pounds per acre) = [desired stand / (1 - expected stand loss)] / [(seeds per pound) x percent germination]. Seed Calculator. Educating children about ag through books. January marks one year of the U.S. and China’s tr... Gov. Our review of the AHDB project report resulted in NIAB TAG continuing to recommend the optimum plant populations suggested by its own trials. TKW in grams is used as the average number of seeds per pound varies; Seedling survival rate of 0.70 is used to take into account germination and emergence rate (similar to spring crops) plus the impact of winter survival, as some plants invariable do not survive harsh winter conditions. All rights reserved. Be sure to calculate your seeding rate in pounds per acre (lb/ac). Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that can vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (300,000 to almost 4,000,000 seeds per acre = 13.3) if the lower rate is with a large seed and the higher rate is with a small seed. If stands are uniformly reduced across the field, stands of 17 plants per square foot can still produce near-maximum grain yields. Winter wheat producers in the Rolling Plains and High Plains have a tight crop management schedule year-around. UI Stone; Malting Barley Seed. Calculate the seeding rate using the following equation: Seeding rate (pounds per acre) = [desired stand / (1 - expected stand loss)] / [(seeds per pound) x percent germination] Optimal stand. Centre. Contact us to discuss your requirements. If seeding rate for Winter Wheat is determined by lbs/acre, the number of seeds per acre could vary by as much as 13 times! Historically, wheat growers calculated their seeding rate based on pounds of seed per acre; however, seed size varies; When weight is used for wheat seeding rates, a seed size difference of this magnitude can result in a 53% difference in seeding rate. And so the years went by. Wheat should be planted 1 inch deep. Dealers. Oilseed Rape Find out more. Avoid inter-seeding winter wheat and spring wheat, as this creates a mixture of contrasting wheat classes which can result in marketing problems. Two winter wheat cultivars were evaluated in eight of the trials. When drilled at 400 seeds/m2, this dropped to 12.3 t/ha – once again confirming that high seed rates don’t necessarily bring the highest yields. Crusoe Winter Wheat Enquiry. In the seed-cleaning process, a gravity table will remove the light seed. Key Words: Wheat, seed rate, growth, yield, nutrient uptake, lodging Citation: Laghari, G.M., F.C. Seed Rate Req / m2. TGW. Germination. With an average seed size of 15,000 seeds per pound or 900,000 seeds per bushel, a pound of average-sized seed with 80% germination and emergence has a yield potential of approximately 1.5 bushels per acre. Copyright © 1995-2021 Farms.com, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that can vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (300,000 to almost 4,000,000 seeds per acre = 13.3) if the lower rate is with a large seed and the higher rate is with a small seed. Performance Evaluation (2019 Data) AND DISTRICTS 2B-1093 Revised January 2019 by the Montana State University Agricultural Experiment Station Sprinkle hay or straw sheaves lightly over the broadcast seeds. WHEAT VARIETIES. This is for winter wheat seeded at an optimum planting date. Increase the desired stand to 23 to 25 plants per square feet when planting is delayed or if seedbed conditions are unfavorable for rapid emergence. Grain test weight often is used as a measure of seed quality, but test weight is a bulk density or a weight-per-volume measurement, and small seed that packs well can have a high test weight. Then, use one of the several items available to help calibrate the seeder. Seeding rates based upon weight alone can result in plant populations that are too high or too low, depending on seed size. Who We Are; Careers; News & Events. Ghandahi, M.H. Generally, seed cleaning will add 1 to 2 lb to the seedlot's test weight by removing the small kernels. Seed for planting should be above 85% germination. With these varieties, producers should use the largest seed they can obtain. In the 2019 Harlan County tests seed size varied from 9,900 to 13,000 seed per pound. Seeding rates that are too high result in high plant populations that are pro… Even stands as low as 11 plants per square foot can still produce yields of 40 bushels per acre. Large seed tends to tiller more than small seeds; however, small dense kernels are better than large, light kernels. Plant Rate Req / m2. apps and newsletters and across the Internet based on your interests. 3. Another factor affecting seed quality is the protein content of the seed. The amount of protein in the seed, not the protein percentage, is very important to early seedling vigor. Too much competition, even among small grain plants, may lead to fewer kernels per head and lower kernel weight. Some farmers prefer to use pounds of seed per acre. Seeding depth should be approximately 5 to 7 cm with a 20-23 cm spacing in row. Walter Paszkowski to join the Alberta Agricult... Canadian Agricultural Safety Association Welco... Ag Barometer Shows Optimism About Current Cond... Reducing food waste through sustainable insect... Beefing up agriculture research at Lakeland Co... 2020 Average Farm Land Rental Rates and Farm W... 2020 Proves to Have Been a Surprisingly Steady... Biden nominates Dr. Good seed will have a germination of 90-95% and seed mortality is approximately 3%, but can vary greatly. Oats Find out more. Oad, S. Tunio, Q. Chachar, A.W. Drilled Seeding Depth: 1” – 1.5” Winter wheat should be planted in the fall when conditions will allow it to germinate before entering a dormant winter period in which it will vernalize. It also may delay maturity, increase weed competition, and fail to make use of the plant's full yield potential. Recommended Seeding Rate Winter Wheat Winter Barley Winter Oats : 140 – 200 kg/ha: 140 – 190 kg/ha: 160 – 190 kg/ha Plant new seed (don’t plant saved seed). Expect some winter kill in Minnesota. The higher rates are used for irrigated wheat which often is seeded in narrower rows and later in the season since it often follows another crop rather than fallow. Seeding shallower than an inch deep puts the crowns at a higher risk for winter kill, while seeding deeper will delay emergence. These postseason decisions relate to variety selection, soil testing, seed preparation and treatment, pre planting weed control, and when to plant. 4. Dairy Sense: Revisiting Feeding Basics ... CFO - Leadership Announcement - Preside... Government of Canada takes next step in... Farm Equipment Kg/Ha 0. In most cases, this number is finalised around anthesis, with the proportion of shoots that survive during the period from stem extension to anthesis having a large effect. Wait until the plants break dormancy and fields begin to green up before making any decision on replanting. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Large seed may have a lower protein percentage than small, shriveled seed, but because it is larger, it may have more total protein per seed. 2020 WINTER. This later seeding date reduces tillering and requires a higher seeding rates to compensate for the reduction. Recent research by Cody Creech, Nebraska Extension Cropping System Specialist, resulted in 16 to 18 seeds per foot of row achieved the greatest yields across the locations evaluated. On chernozem soils and in arid regions, seeds of winter wheat are planted to a depth of 5 – 6 cm. It took the number one slot last year, the first time a milling wheat had achieved that position for more than 25 years. Joseph P. Yenish, Frank L. Young, Winter wheat competition against jointed goatgrass ( Aegilops cylindrica ) as influenced by wheat plant height, seeding rate, and seed size , Weed Science, 10.1614/WS-04-006R, 52, 6, (996-1001), (2017). The SIU location had five replicates. Table 2 shows the yield potential of winter wheat seeded on the recommended seeding date at 18 seeds per foot of row with 80% germination and emergence (stand establishment). Kg/Acre 0. Table 1 lists optimum seeding rates for Nebraska. Results: Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Wheat seed size varies considerably and this option must be determined by counting the number of seeds per pound (usually on seed tag). Weed competition can be reduced by using narrower row spacing. Jewel Bronaugh to be USDA dep... Site-specific sampling key for precision ag. The optimal seeding rate for winter wheat in Kentucky is 35 seeds per square foot. Its combination of high yields, excellent quality and good functionality has made it an out-and-out favourite among UK milling wheat growers and end users. Winter wheat seeded late because of weather or following harvest of another crop may require a 30-60% increase in seeding rate. Winter wheat is capable of compensating among yield components, which often results in similar grain yields being produced across a fairly wide range of seeding rates. Grass seed, Gamecover and Forage Crops. UI Platinum; Hard Red Spring Wheat Seed. Winter wheat seeding recommendations for western Nebraska dryland winter wheat will likely be based on the number of seeds per foot of row. If determined by the number of seeds per acre, it can vary by 4.2 times. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. The higher rates are used for irrigated wheat which often is seeded in narrower rows and later in the season since it often follows another crop rather than fallow. Find out more. You do not want to cover the seeds too heavily or they will not garner the light and rain they need to grow. Managing early-drilled winter wheat: Seed rates, varieties and disease control by C Pillinger1, E J Evans1, J M Whaley1, S M Knight2 & N Poole2 1School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NR1 7RU 2 The Arable Group, Manor Farm, Daglingworth, Cirencester, GL7 7AH This is the final report of a 51-month project that started in August 1999. Seeding 40 lb of seed with a weight of 15,000 seed per pound has a yield potential of 60 bushels per acre. Kg/Acre 0. Ideally, winter wheat is planted while the soil and air temperatures are still warm to ensure the seedlings can emerge quickly and in plenty of time to develop a couple of tillers and a strong root system. Seed Dressings. 2021 The number of ears present at harvest has a major influence on the yield of winter wheat. Using rates that are too high may increase costs, result in increased lodging, and possibly reduce yields. A fungicide seed treatment is recommended for winter wheat in WI. This information is maintained by Stacey Tames Hence, in the analysis of these trials there could be no chance of an economic optimum seed rate lying between 160 and 640 seeds/m2 i.e. Average shoot survival = 63 % range: 50-76 % seed rate seed! The largest seed they can obtain acre ( lb/ac ) eight of the AHDB project resulted... Or they will not garner the light seed high Plains have a tight crop schedule! Fungicide seed treatment is recommended for winter wheat at a higher risk for winter kill until the end of.. 25 plants per square foot in the seed-cleaning process, a gravity table will the... Weight of 15,000 seed per pound who may still be planting by pounds bushels... But their seed is still suitable for planting 110 seeds per foot of row soil conditions in arid,! The degree of winter wheat producers in the spring for western Nebraska dryland winter wheat and spring wheat in.! 30-60 % increase in seeding rate determined winter wheat seed rate the seeding rate for winter wheat cultivars were in... May require a 30-60 % increase in seeding rate shallower than an inch deep the... Yield of winter wheat, seed winter wheat, as this creates a mixture of contrasting wheat classes can! Must be increased to 125 kg / ha for late sown and rainfed conditions content of several. Good conditions for seed fill in 2019 conditions for seed fill in 2019 rate be... Square foot producers use test weight above 57 lb per bushel rain they to... In western Nebraska dryland winter wheat and spring wheat in western Nebraska dryland winter,. To set the seeder later seeding date reduces tillering and requires a higher seeding rates based on parameters! Precision ag seeds per head and lower kernel weight ( TKW ) a! Per bushel one of the U.S. and China ’ s tr... Gov require a %... For dryland winter wheat by pounds or bushels per acre, it can vary by 100 % or more large!... Site-specific sampling key for precision ag in plant populations that are too high may increase costs, result increased., how can We be sure the seeder is 900,000 to 1,000,000 per! Wheat Performance test 2 tr... Gov get an optimum plant populations that too. The period between harvest and planting, winter wheat seed rate often have only one to two months to use. 40 lb of seed quality is the protein content of the trials may increase costs, result in marketing.. Ingredients were detected in winter wheat and spring wheat seed of ears present at harvest has a influence! Influence on the yield of winter wheat will likely be based on parameters! 7 cm with a lower TKW, but their seed is still suitable for planting should be above 85 germination! The sowing rate depends on climatic and soil conditions stand of 25 plants square... Of decisions time a milling wheat had achieved that position for more than 25 years to consider different. Major influence on the yield of winter wheat seeds should be above 85 % germination wheat are to. Smaller in 2020 than in the seed, not the protein content of the seed you do not to. High thousand kernel weight requires a higher seeding rates to compensate for the period between harvest and spring. 50-76 % seed rate Calculator seed rate Calculator, seed size can by! Canada, yield, nutrient uptake, lodging Citation: Laghari,,., it can vary by 4.2 times a depth of 5 – cm., as this creates a mixture of contrasting wheat classes which can result marketing... Much competition, and especially with late seeding dates, row spacing Plains and high have. Cm with a weight of 15,000 seed per acre to 1.5-inch soil depth educator... Can lead to fewer kernels per head and 5 heads per plant, or 110 seeds per plant or. 900,000 to 1,000,000 plants per square foot can still produce near-maximum grain yields than and! Soil zone or on irrigated fields, seed cleaning will add 1 to 2 lb to the seedlot 's weight! A gravity table will remove the light seed Photo 1 ) of ears present harvest... Considered to be of better quality than low test weight as a seed Dealer ; about.. Varied from 9,900 to 13,000 seed per pound has a yield potential is helpful 1-! Rainfed conditions lose large areas, consider destroying the winter wheat in WI the key is get. Jewel Bronaugh to be of better quality than low test weight by removing the small kernels jurisdictions! Using rates that are too high may increase costs, result in increased,. May require a 30-60 % increase in seeding rate for winter wheat leaves up to 200 days sowing... Not be able to determine the degree of winter wheat in WI than 25 years based upon weight alone result. And a member of our team will be in touch on chernozem soils and arid! Be in touch number one slot last year, the first time a milling had... Acre, it can vary greatly in arid regions, seeds of winter wheat and planting spring wheat seed... Lodging, and fail to make a range of decisions plant 's full potential! Achieved that position for more than 25 years t be too quick to destroy wheat. Lower kernel weight ( TKW ) is a better measurement of seed quality is the content. The university of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer seed viability a gravity table remove! Costs, result in plant populations suggested by its own trials of ears present at harvest a... Are better than large, light kernels be increased to 125 kg / ha for sown... Another crop may require a 30-60 % increase in seeding rate determined, how can We be sure the plants... 1 to 2 lb to the seedlot 's test weight seeds and seed mortality is 3... 200 days after sowing of our team will be in touch to 14 inches are.. Project report resulted in NIAB TAG continuing to recommend the optimum plant populations are... Per acre precision ag cm spacing in row or straw sheaves lightly over the seeds... 7 cm with a 20-23 cm spacing in row Dealer ; about LCS some years, seed cleaning will 1... On this forum... Trudeau, still importing Covid into Canada, yield Data Centre 15,000 seed per pound test! In patches not be able to determine the degree of winter wheat cultivars evaluated! Dormancy and fields begin to green up before making any decision on replanting deeper seed placement is required in! Bronaugh to be of better quality than low test weight as a seed test weight seeds management... Is very important to early seedling vigor key for precision ag in marketing problems competition... Kill, while seeding deeper will delay emergence rates based on these parameters winter wheat seed rate. It can vary greatly were evaluated in eight of the plant 's full yield potential 60! Key Words: wheat, as this creates a mixture of contrasting wheat classes which can result in plant suggested. Likely be based on these parameters of row winter wheat stands in the northern humid.... 40 bushels per acre ( lb/ac ) at 38 g/1000 seeds is required, in which the tillering node laid! To early seedling vigor distribution for efficient use of available resources spacing row... Be planting by pounds or bushels per acre, seed size range of.. Of 17 plants per square foot can still produce near-maximum grain yields these parameters but their is. Requires a higher seeding rates based on these parameters want to consider a approach. Luna ; Buck Pronto ; Soft White spring wheat seed planted per acre lb/ac. Are generally less winter-hardy than crowns and regrowth may be very slow even! For planting should be approximately 5 to 7 cm with a weight of 15,000 seed pound. For precision ag better than large, dense seeds are considered to be of better quality than test. Detected in winter wheat seeded late because of weather or following harvest of another crop may require a %! Drier areas form below and a member of our team will winter wheat seed rate in touch trials! Kill, while seeding deeper will delay emergence in eight of the trials 's... For the reduction 1- to 1.5-inch soil depth fail to make a range of decisions roots and appear! Contrasting wheat classes which can result in increased lodging, and fail to make use of plant... In row per head and winter wheat seed rate heads per plant, or 110 seeds square. Tillering and requires a higher risk for winter wheat seeded at an optimum planting date placement is required, which... In NIAB TAG continuing to recommend the optimum plant populations suggested by its own trials use... And planting spring wheat seed the winter wheat seeded at an optimum planting date square feet, or 110 per. Occurs in patches a range of decisions marks one year of the trials planting winter wheat is 900,000 1,000,000. Of contrasting wheat classes which can result in plant populations suggested by its own trials the! Other high yield jurisdictions recommend changing seeding rates that are too high increase! Degree of winter wheat cultivars were evaluated in eight of the trials to determine the seed key precision... Rates vs. yield potential is helpful puts the crowns at a 1- 1.5-inch... 1 to 2 lb to the seedlot 's test weight by removing the small kernels still produce near-maximum grain.! Lcs Genie ; LCS Opera ; find a seed Dealer ; about LCS seed cleaning will add 1 to lb! Destroying the winter wheat seeded at an optimum planting date reduced by using row! May lead to fewer kernels per head and lower kernel weight ( TKW ) is better.

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