The German colonization of Africa took place during two distinct periods. Before the Treaty of Versailles was even signed, Great Britain, France, and Japan had total control over the German colonies since 1915, except for East Africa. The Portuguese colonised both Mozambique and Angola, in southern Africa, whilst South-western Africa, along with Tanganyika in East Africa were under German rule. The Germans encircled the Herero but left one part open for them to escape into the Kalahari, expecting them to die of starvation and thirst. Before that time, what is twenty-first-century Italy consisted of several independent kingdoms. [1] Germany had recently unified in 1871 and the rapid industrialization of their society required a steady stream of raw materials. Why did Europeans want to colonize Africa. Germans met armed resistance from the Bassa-Bakoko, one of the largest ethnic groups of the coastal and northwest Kamerun areas, who staged an armed rebellion trying to halt German inland penetration, but were defeated between 1892 and 1895. Nevertheless, the German interest in the interior continued, heightened by favorable reports from travelers such as Heinrich Barth in the 1850's; Gerhard Rohlfs in the 1860’s; and Gustav Nachtigal, from 1869 to 1873. [33] Some Germans also argued that the colonial territories which blossomed under their rule were economically ruined after they were expunged. In German East Africa this was much harder to pursue as agriculture was less developed, and farmers sometimes needed to be coerced into producing certain crops. To persuade their surrender, the Germans told the Herero they would be allowed to return to their homeland; that they had been pardoned by the Kaiser. Berlin Conference Tasks The initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. When the Germans were in control of Tanganyika, two broad phases can summarize their rule. The ultimate goal of Europeans was to establish a market economy and that was done by compelling Africans into a labor pool. The fact that many countries in Africa still experience high levels of poverty today, often despite the country’s natural riches, is used as proof by many that the colonialization of Africa did more harm than good. German East Africa, German Deutsch-Ostafrika, former dependency of imperial Germany, corresponding to present-day Rwanda and Burundi, the continental portion of Tanzania, and a small section of Mozambique.Penetration of the area was begun in 1884 by German commercial agents, and German claims were recognized by the other European powers in the period 1885–94. [22] After the German navy cemented their control over the Kamerun coast, and further troop landings were made, the Germans were more inclined to move inland. Most victims of the Shark Island camp were the Nama people; they saw the tragedy that the Herero went through and rebelled against the Germans because of that. The amount of land that each country owned was considered to be a great indicator of power, with every state wanting to do better than their neighbor. Gol(raw materials), Glory(more land ment more power), and God(convert people to Christianity) ... France, Portugal, Germany and Belgium. The district officer exercised full jurisdiction over ‘natives’, for although legislation specified the punishments he might impose, nothing defined the offences for which he might impose them. Germany was severely weakened by the Treaty of Versailles but attempted everything to regain their overseas empire. The 1880s mark the beginning of the colonial period in African history. [10] These ‘local compromises’, as they may be called, had common characteristics. The African natives were shipped by cattle cars and taken to a place far from public view to be exterminated. This was done either by bargaining with African leaders or through warfare. However, due to the fact that European powers were disproportionately aided by the products of the industrial revolution, many former empires and kingdoms that had been present in Africa were at a disadvantage and lost to the colonizers. [43] After World War I, Germany did not just lose territory but lost commercial footholds, spheres of influence, and imperialistic ambitions of continued expansion. Five years later, a treaty with the king of Arguin in Mauritania established a protectorate over that island, and Brandenburg occupied an abandoned fort originally constructed there by Portugal. After the first Germans were killed by the Herero, the Germans turned extreme and believed ethnic cleansing was necessary. After the war the League of Nations confirms the existing state of affairs, granting Belgium in 1924 a mandate to administer the colony. While most German citizens do know that Germany had colonies in Africa, the majority does not know much more than that. [42] Great Britain and France had made secret arrangements splitting German territory and the Treaty of Versailles only cemented what had already taken place. German frustration from their territories being stolen from them and the extensive amount of reparations they were forced to pay led directly to World War II. Before it reached that point, the Germans started off slow in Namibia, from a position of relative weakness. Brandenburg — after 1701, the Kingdom of Prussia — pursued these colonial efforts until 1721, when Arguin was captured by the French and the Gold Coast settlements were sold to the Dutch Republic. In 1865 he succeeded his father, Leopold I, to the Belgian throne. Namibia, or South Western Africa has an area of 835,100 kilometers squared. Why did South Africa colonized Namibia? [30] The Togolanders were beyond thankful to be freed from German rule, this conflicted with the previously-held contention among many European imperialists that Togoland was a model colony. In the initial stages of German control of East Africa, private German firms were given autonomy to run the establishment in East Africa. Prior to this time, world superpowers such as Portugal, France, and Britain had already set up colonies in Africa. [37] As the Germans became more determined to take Herero land for Lebensraum, the Herero edged closer to open rebellion and killed a number of Germans as a result of this treatment. German control of Togoland dates back to February 1884 when a group of German soldiers kidnapped chiefs in Anecho, in present-day south-Eastern Togo and forced them into negotiations among the German warship Sophie. [20] The Germans hoped to exploit the natural resources of the region and provide their country with a new market for manufactured goods; Kamerun was never considered to be a settler colony, as the climate was too hostile. The following year gunboats were dispatched to East Africa to contest the Sultan of Zanzibar's claims of sovereignty over the mainland in what is today Tanzania. These were colonies unsuccessfully settled by Brandenburg-Prussia (part of the Holy Roman Empire realm), after 1701 Kingdom of Prussia, before the foundation of the German Empire in 1871.. Africa. [13] However, this was not what happened in other scenarios. [41] Overall, the camps in Namibia provided the blueprint for death camps of 20th century, that Nazi Germany used. In some places throughout Africa, the colonial state only needed to provide seeds of encouragement as commercial agriculture was already well established. When Germany invades Belgium, at the start of World War I, the Belgians retaliate in a smaller way in central Africa. [21]  For a period of time, after the Germans declared Kamerun a protectorate, they only had a solidified position on the coast; the Germans had not been successful in opening trade routes in the interior, partly for geographical reasons. After diplomacy concluded and the conflicts resulted in German victory, their regime used bands of gunmen to maintain authority over local leaders. Settlements in modern Guinea and Nigeria's Ondo State failed within a year; those in Cameroon, Namibia, Tanzania and Togo quickly grew into lucrative colonies. To fix this problem members of the ‘surplus’ population were exported as colonists in Algeria, Tunisisa, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, These troops were all that stood between the meagre German administration and the African population. The Germans offered political and military support for their allies in exchange for the recognition of German authority, provision of labor and building materials, and the use of diplomacy instead of force in settling issues. Eventually, the main coastal towns, which were more settled, were converted into headquarters of administration districts, and civilian district officers were appointed. The main goal of the Germans in Namibia was to provide a Lebensraum for its people; more territory that a state believes is needed for its natural development. 0 … Prior to the wave of European colonization, the geography of Africa was generally misunderstood. However, at the start of the First World War, the combined forces of the British and the French invaded the colony and the Germans capitulated, after only a few skirmishes, on 26 August 1914. [3] Warriors flocked to a few of the coastal towns and gave the Germans two days to leave. [36] The Germans expected to come in and simply begin colonization efforts, but instead they were renting land from the people who they were supposed to be colonizing; a paradoxical relationship. The treaty only further confirmed that “Germany renounced to the Allied and Associated powers all rights and titles to her overseas territories”. Eventually, when the Germans believed the time was right to assert more control, they began disputing the Herero claims over land. In one instance, two Germans were killed in the town of Kilwa; German marines were eventually ordered in who cleared the town, killing every one they saw. By 1900 a significant part of Africa had been colonized by mainly seven European powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. The exploitative nature of the German regime swept the natives of Kamerun into a changed world. Omar Mukhtar: Omar Mukhtar was born to a noble clan in Zanzur, and after his father died, he was adopted by Sharif El Gariani. Many of the old African collaborators did not necessarily lose power in this second stage of German administration, but to survive they had to adapt themselves and often reorganize their societies.[14]. The Congo was under King Leopold II’s rule (eventually Belgian) and Senegal, Cameroon, and several other colonies in the western Sudan and Central Africa were gained by France. [18] Most companies eventually gave way to governmental authority by the beginning of the 1920s, but the German colonial empire had already collapsed by that point. Answer Save. There were almost no free Herero people after the establishment of the concentration camps; slave labor became part of the colonial economy. The Allies rejected the proposals because the native inhabitants of the German colonies were strongly opposed to being brought under their control again. The Germans attacked the Herero where they were mainly gathered, right next to the Kalahari Desert. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, … [29] The Germans made sure that they had complete control over both Togoland and its inhabitants. By Faith Barasa on March 12 2019 in Society. But Denmark didn't have the means or the appetite for greater colonial expansion. [38] Negotiation was not an option and the Herero did not see any of this coming; they believed the earlier disputes had been resolved; the Herero moved as far away as possible from the German settlements to try and survive. Some saw Germany's behavior in South-West Africa as a precursor of German actions in the Holocaust. In the years 1884 and 1885, the Berlin Conference formalized European colonization of Africa. By the … The formation of impressive rail networks and telegraph systems further supported this opinion. While Togoland might have appeared to be "model" to Europeans, Togolanders endured a regime characterized by the aforementioned labor and taxation policies, harsh punishments inflicted by German district officers, grossly inadequate health care and education systems, and prohibition from many commercial activities. [32] Germans quickly responded, to defend their honor, by stating that the Africans were more than satisfied with German sovereignty, that they desired nothing more than its continuance. The history of Namibia has passed through several distinct stages from being colonised in the late nineteenth century to Namibia's independence on 21 March 1990.. From 1884, Namibia was a German colony: German South West Africa.After the First World War, the League of Nations Mandated South Africa to administer the territory. [35] The Germans realized that Namibia would be perfect for this, and ethnic cleansing was necessary to create the Lebensraum. Together these four territories constituted Germany's African presence in the age of New Imperialism. German planners anticipated that the fate of their African empire would be settled, if necessary, by wars in Europe, not in Africa itself. [24] The army in the protectorate remained small because its major task was to suppress scattered African rebellions, not to ward off other Europeans. [17] However, this was quickly discovered to be inefficient as many of these firms went bankrupt because of mismanagement and African resistance. German Desires for Tanganyika and Early Expansion, The consolidation of German rule in Tanganyika, Two broad phases of district administration, German South West Africa and the Herero and Nama Genocide, Laumann, Dennis. Germany had recently unified in 1871 and the rapid industrialization of their society required a steady stream of raw materials. This also feeds the general opinion that German colonial history was only a short perio… Social As a side effect of the Industrial Revolution unemployment, poverty, and homelessness had become prevalent throughout Europe. South Western Africa was a German colony from 1884 until 1915. In 1876 he commissioned Sir Henry Morton Stanley’s expedition to explore the Congo region. Towards the end of the 19 th century European countries such as England, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, and Italy began colonizing Africa which became known as “The Scramble for Africa”. However, in order to accomplish these advancements, they needed a source of constant raw material supply. There were several different reasons why European colonizers set their sights on the African continent Some of the most prominent ones are outlined below: The 19th century was home to the industrial revolution, a time when many European nations were flourishing in the technology sector of the time. In fact, European countries competed with one another to see who could attain the most power and growth. Probably the most important was economic as a depression was occurring in Europe. However, the map shows Namibia. [5] The next set of business for the Germans was to impose their rule over the small-scale societies further away from the caravan routes. Much like what occurred in North and South America, European colonizers brought the Christian faith to Africa through missionaries. why did Germany colonize Rwanda? This activity led to the depopulation of inland zones. Germany did, in 1885. 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